A key benefit of pencil beam scanning particle therapy is high precision placement of dose. In the transverse plane this precision relies on a consistent incoming beam trajectory and predictable behaviour of the beam scan magnets. However the beam trajectory may vary, and effects like scan magnet yoke hysteresis, eddy currents and power supply bandwidth limitations can affect the spot positioning accuracy, stability, reproducibility and speed.
Several particle therapy facilities allow modulation of the scan magnet current while a spot is being delivered. This is most practical for with large scan magnet to isocentre spacing. We propose an alternative arrangement for proton therapy in which a small, fast correction magnet of deliberately small deflecting power is used in combination with the main scan magnets to provide an integrated system which approaches the ideal.
By limiting the deflection of the corrector to less than 5 mm at isocentre using a maximum gap field of 310 Gauss, the magnet can be physically small (10 cm pole length), highly linear and have very low inductance and resistance. The coil current supply can be conveniently integrated with the main scan magnet supplies, using the same DC bus and infrastructure.
The deflection of the combined system is the sum of the main magnet and correction magnet deflections to very good approximation. The correction magnet can be driven either using a pre-determined current profile or using feedback from main scan magnet fields or measured spot positions. The following can then be performed in real time:
In addition to these features that improve the performance of the scan system, it is also possible to use the fast corrector to introduce deliberate blurring of a beam spot to increase its effective size upon demand and thus reduce the number of spots needed.
Control scheme (one axis shown) and a two-axis MN60 ferrite corrector magnet with pole length 10 cm, pole gaps 7 cm, calculated self inductance 76 µH and resistance 10 mΩ per axis. Deflection angle for 230 MeV protons is 2.2 mrad. The magnet is designed to be powered by one IECO PA400-350 four-quadrant supply per axis with current control bandwidth >10 kHz, DC current up to 140 A, voltage compliance 350 V.
An extension of the fast correction magnet concept allows a direct role in spot delivery. If the maximum deflection at isocentre is doubled to around 8 to 10 mm (at maximum energy), then the fast magnet can make most spot position changes on its own, in less than 50 µsec. While the dose is being delivered the main scan magnet then makes the same move (more slowly) but is exactly compensated by simultaneous reduction of the snap scan magnet field so that the beam spot does not move. Further control of the fast magnet in correction mode can negate position instabilities resulting from the beam turn-on.
The higher deflection is easy to achieve with the same power supply and magnet length if the design is optimized for a single bending direction, by reducing the pole gap. Pencil beam dose delivery maps typically arrange the spots in each isoenergy layer such that most moves are made by the faster axis to minimise the overall deadtime. Thus by speeding up the faster axis the dose delivery time is reduced.
Pyramid offers high speed scanning magnets and Hall probes suitable for pencil beam scanning proton therapy systems. We are experienced at implementing the control systems for particle accelerators and their beamlines. Our devices are proven in the accelerator beamline environments.
Pyramid is pleased to work with FMB-Oxford Ltd to supply products to the international synchrotron light source beamline community.
Proton therapy is well established for the treatment of localized cancer tumors, especially when there are vital organs close by. This healthy tissue sparing makes it the method of choice for maintaining quality of life and especially for treating children. The proton beam delivery is fast and painless.
Proton therapy centers worldwide use Pyramid sensors, electronics, and software. Pyramid offers products for complete systems, sub-systems, or components. For more information see our Pencil Beam Scanning Brochure